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[研究分享]地理環境資源學系溫在弘副教授教學成果分享-利用地圖開啟地理學的想像

[研究分享]賀!本系姜蘭虹名譽教授出版學術專書「性別、社會與空間讀本」。

 

[研究分享]賀!本系林俊全教授出版學術專書「Geomorphology and Society」!

本書於2016年由世界性的國際學術領域書籍出版社Springer出版(Springer Japan),屬於Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences 系列專書,探討地理與環境科學的進展、地貌與社會的關係,由國際學者提供跨領域的觀點,了解地形地貌領域的關鍵發展。
• Provides state-of-the-art treatment of the relationship between geomorphology and society
• Contains contributions by leading international scholars with a strong interdisciplinary focus 
• Shares key developments in understanding the geomorphology of the anthropocene
 專書連結: http://www.springer.com/us/book/9784431559986

 專書簡介
Geomorphology and Society

This book deals with the relationship between geomorphology and society. This topic has had rather scant treatment in the literature except to some extent under the label “applied geomorphology”. In this text the authors aim to bring together conceptual issues and case studies of how geomorphology influences society and, indeed, how society is in turn influenced by geomorphology. In an age in which the influence of human activities on global environments has become so paramount that it is increasingly common to refer to it geologically as the “anthropocene”, the book aims to reflect on the geomorphological significance of widespread and diverse forms of human impact in a range of environmental settings.
Editors: E. Meadows, Michael, Lin, Jiun-Chuan (Eds.)
ISBN 978-4-431-55998-6
eBook ISBN: 978-4-431-56000-5

 作者簡介
Professor Mike Meadows is Head of the Department of Environmental & Geographical Science at the University of Cape Town and Secretary-General and Treasurer of the International Geographical Union
Professor J-C Lin is the Chair of the International Geographical Union Commission on Geomorphology and Society

 Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences系列簡介
Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences synthesizes series diagnostigation and prognostication of earth environment, incorporating challenging interactive areas within ecological envelope of geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and cryosphere. It deals with land use land cover change (LUCC), urbanization, energy flux, land-ocean fluxes, climate, food security, ecohydrology, biodiversity, natural hazards and disasters, human health and their mutual interaction and feedback mechanism in order to contribute towards sustainable future. The geosciences methods range from traditional field techniques and conventional data collection, use of remote sensing and geographical information system, computer aided technique to advance geostatistical and dynamic modeling.

The series integrate past, present and future of geospheric attributes incorporating biophysical and human dimensions in spatio-temporal perspectives. The geosciences, encompassing land-ocean-atmosphere interaction is considered as a vital component in the context of environmental issues, especially in observation and prediction of air and water pollution, global warming and urban heat islands. It is important to communicate the advances in geosciences to increase resilience of society through capacity building for mitigating the impact of natural hazards and disasters. Sustainability of human society depends strongly on the earth environment, and thus the development of geosciences is critical for a better understanding of our living environment, and its sustainable development.

Geoscience also has the responsibility to not confine itself to addressing current problems but it is also developing a framework to address future issues. In order to build a 'Future Earth Model' for understanding and predicting the functioning of the whole climatic system, collaboration of experts in the traditional earth disciplines as well as in ecology, information technology, instrumentation and complex system is essential, through initiatives from human geoscientists. Thus human geosceince is emerging as key policy science for contributing towards sustainability/survivality science together with future earth initiative.

Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences series publishes books that contain novel approaches in tackling issues of human geoscience in its broadest sense – books in the series should focus on true progress in a particular area or region. The series includes monographs and edited volumes without any limitations in the page numbers.

[研究分享]本系黃倬英副教授與中研院合作團隊在 Science 發表研究成果

地理系黃倬英副教授與中研院合作團隊在Science發表

短期氣象變異對生物分佈的關鍵影響

全球暖化造成氣候變異度增加,但是生物如何適應氣候變異仍未有整合的理論。地理環境資源系黃倬英博士與沈聖峰博士(中研院生物多樣性研究中心、兼任生態學與演化生物學所)的研究團隊,花了將近四年的時間,運用進階分析模式結合全球尺度氣象模擬空間圖層與全球超過16000種陸域脊椎動物的資料,來暸解日溫差及季節溫度差(或年溫差)對於生物海拔與空間分佈的影響,結果與經典生態學假說有顯著的差異,本研究已於2016年3月24日發表於Science。

氣候變異度假說(climatic variability hypothesis)已發展將近半個世紀,該假說認為,隨著緯度或海拔增高,生物身處的氣候變動幅度會加大,其生理上對氣候變異度的耐受性也會增加,因此在高緯度、高海拔地區生物分佈範圍較廣,該假說是目前被廣泛接受的巨觀生理學規則(macrophysiological rule),但根據研究團隊長年在台灣山區的微尺度觀測發現,生物更需面對各種短期(例如日溫差)的氣象變異,此假說顯然未能充分解釋生物的適應機制,尤其是對於熱帶與近熱帶這些全球生物多樣性熱點的生物。為重新檢驗此經典假說的普及性,研究團隊使用結構方程模型建立各種氣候因子的影響途徑,配合理論生態學方法,再輔以長期高解析度的全球氣候空間資料庫、大量的生物數據,重新分析來自全球180座山的陸域脊椎動物之海拔分佈跨幅資料。結果發現,年溫差越大,生物海拔分佈跨幅越大,此結果支持傳統的「氣候變異度假說」。然而結果也發現,若日溫差越大,生物海拔分佈跨幅卻越小;也就代表生物在短期氣候變異度較強的環境下,生理上能適應的溫度範圍反而較小。這似乎說明了生物在面對長期(如年溫差)及短期(如日溫差)的氣候變異度時,會出現不同的生理適應策略。

從全球環境變遷研究的巨觀角度來看,目前國際上對氣候變遷對於生物圈的影響的研究(例如IPCC Working Group 2 Assessment Report),主要將重點放在長期氣候變化對於原生物種的威脅,本研究成果灌注了一個評估環境變遷衝擊的新面向,建議應該將短期氣象變異與極端氣象對於動物行為生態的影響也納入考量。本論文共同第一作者分別為詹偉平先生(中研院生物多樣性研究中心助理,台大森林系(所)94(98)級)與陳一菁博士(成功大學生命科學系),其他共同作者包括Robert Colwell博士(University of Connecticut)與劉維中博士(中研院統計科學所),研究經費主要由國立台灣大學理學院醉月湖平台計畫、中央研究院前瞻計畫與獎勵國內學人短期來院訪問研究以及科技部支持。

huangCY

熱帶與亞熱帶山區由於地理與地形的特徵,跨越廣大的環境梯度,為全球陸域生物多樣性的熱點。從區域的尺度來看,氣候變遷可能對台灣高山多變的微氣候加注更多不確定性,衝擊著原生物種的生存與空間分佈(拍攝地點:雪山山脈霧林帶,拍攝者:詹曉蕙)。

huangCY2

全球尺度的長期陸域氣象資料在紅(STR:季節溫度差)、綠(DTR:日溫差)、黃(年雨量)三原色展示下,可以明顯看出明顯的生物氣候帶。北半球高緯度區主要受到的季節溫度差的影響,而熱帶地區由於受到高雨量的影響,調適了溫度差對於環境的影響,其他地區如乾燥地、高山地區,以及大部份的南半球陸地,則受到日溫差的影響。

論文參考網站:http://science.sciencemag.org/content/351/6280/1437